Traces of habitation in Majorca (or Mallorca) Island have been discovered from the period of 6000 - 4000 BC. The Carthaginians occupied the island and later by the Romans in 123 BC under Quintus Caesilius Metellus. Pollentia (Alcudia) and Palmaria (Palma) were established during the Roman period. The economy of these towns was supported by olive cultivation, viticulture, and salt mining.
In 426, Majorca was sacked and annexed to the Vandal kingdom. In 534, the Byzantine Empire conquered it and administered it as a part of the Sardinia Province. During this time, Christianity boomed up, and many churches were built.
From 707, Muslim raiders from North Africa attacked the island. The Caliphate of Cordoba conquered Majorca in 902, escorting a new period in the island's prosperity. Muslims developed local industries and improved agriculture with irrigation. In 1015, Majorca came under the rule of the Taifa of Denia and was an independent Taifa from 1087 – 1114. Though in 1114, the Pisans and Catalans laid their siege on Palma for eight months. After the fall of the city, the invaders gave way and were replaced by the Almoravides from North Africa. In 1203, the Almohad dynasty ruled over the island, replacing the Almoravides. In 1229 King James I of Aragon was attacked with 15,000 men and 1,500 horses, taking possession of Majorca after a three-month war.
In 1276, after the death of James I, the kingdom was divided between his sons; James II became the King of the kingdom of Majorca. In 1344, King Peter IV of Aragon marched into the kingdom and re-incorporated the island into the crown.
1479 and onwards, the Crown of Aragon and was in a dynastic union with Castile. In the 18th century, the dynastic union was unified by the Spanish Monarchy after the war of the Spanish succession. Majorca became a part of the Spanish province of Baleares in 1716 by the Decretos de Nueva Planta.
Since the 1950s, tourism has transformed Majorca Island into a popular destination for visitors. In the 21st century, urban redevelopment attracted workers from Europe, Africa and South America.